Management of Biological Invasions, 5(4):327-339. http://www.reabic.net/journals/mbi/2014/4/MBI_2014_Clements_etal.pdf, Clements D; Dugdale TM; Hunt TD, 2011. Journal of Phytopathology. 6 (1), 77-82. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2011/AI_2011_6_1_Clements_etal.pdf DOI:10.3391/ai.2011.6.1.09. Alternanthera philoxeroides is â¦ The current status of biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides in Australia. (Efeitos de misturas de herbicidas no controle de Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. In Sri Lanka A. philoxeroides was identified in 1998 and by 2004 it reached provinces at elevations > 2500 m (Jayasinghe, 2008). Guo X; Zhou X, 2005. 21. 39 (2), 165-173. Eradication The community succession of rice field weeds in Shanghai area and factor analysis. In India, A. philoxeroides is spreading across Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, Tripura, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Delhi and Punjab. 1 Alligator Weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides)Ecological Risk Screening Summary U.S. The thrip species Amymothrips andersoni produces limited damage to the stands by attacking and deforming the apical leaves. The herbicides, metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, dichlobenil and a mixture of glyphosate and metsulfuron methyl have been used to control A. philoxeroides infestations in Australia. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Panama, 2016. Molecular phylogenetics of Alternanthera (Gomphrenoideae, Amaranthaceae): resolving a complex taxonomic history caused by different interpretations of morphological characters in a lineage with C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species. long.  Argentina alone hosts around 27 species that fall within the range of the genus Alternanthera. This plant has an amazing ability to grow vigorously forming a massive underground rhizomatous root system that is difficult to control. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Biological Invasions. broad, the usually unbranched peduncles 1-5 cm. Coulson J R, 1977. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Chromosome numbers of Shanghai plants I. Investigatio et Studium Naturae, 12:48-65. Zhou Bing; Chen Jie; Ma ShengPing; Yin ShuaiWen; Wang Ning, 2016. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. Shaheen R, Mitra N, Mahmud R, 2006. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, Clements D, Dugdale T M, Hunt T D, 2011. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 169(3):493-517. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8339. Bowmer KH, 1992. Das SKD; Singh NP, 2006. While some of the better-known species are aquatic plants, most are terrestrial. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Additionally, A. sessilis is a stoloniferous clonal herb that primarily uses sexual seed reproduction. Islam M M, Amin A S M R, Sarker S K, 2003. The larvae bore into the stem and work their way down the stem, resulting in wilting and drooping of the plant (DiTomaso and Kyser, 2013). Lal C, Sah M, 1990. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ], 7(1):143-146. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2012/AI_2012_1_Masoodi_Khan.pdf. 87 (3), 469. Use of competing plants has also been studied. Plant Protection Quarterly, 27(2):70-82. http://www.weedinfo.com.au, Dugdale TM; Clements D; Hunt TD; Butler KL, 2010. (Alternanthera in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Partial control of the species has been achieved in New Zealand by biocontrol methods (Hayes et al., 2013).Amynothrips andersoni, a biocontrol agent originally from Argentina, has been introduced into the USA; it is established in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. A. philoxeroides has a very similar appearance to other species native to South America in the same family (Amaranthaceae) named as mukunuwenna or sessile joyweed (Alternanthera sessilis). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 133(3/4):433-444. , Some Alternanthera are used as ornamental plants. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 37(1/2):152. broad (Flora of Panama, 2016). The evolutionary history of an invasive species: alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Xie L; LIZ; William PG; Li D, 2000. Patel D P, Anup Das, Rajesh Kumar, Munda G C, 2005. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai. Invasion of alligator weed (, Bassett I; Paynter Q; Hankin R; Beggs JR, 2012. Zhu Z; Zhou C; Yang J, 2015. 21 (1), 82-86. When growing on land it also grows forming a dense mat of vegetation with a mass of creeping underground stems and is capable of out-competing all but the most robust plant species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 46]; 5 pp. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm. Alternanthera philoxeroides Alternanthera pungens Alternanthera reineckii Alternanthera reineckii var. Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. Té una distribució cosmopolita.Diverses de les seves espècies són aquàtiques que, de vegades, es planten als aquaris (A. bettzichiana, A. reineckii, A. reineckii var. Three species (Hymenia recurvalis, Nanophyes sp. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3):852-858. There is an extensive biocontrol programme in China.