In 1959, Beardsley demonstrated that the pink and gray strains were in fact different species. ISSN 1179-643X. Aust. The adventive Long-tailed mealybug has been in New Zealand for over 100 years. In other insects with a none flying adult female, the first stage larvae or nymphs are able to disperse to new plants. Dysmicoccus brevipes, ‘Pseudococcus brevipes’, ‘Dactylopius brevipes’, ‘Pineapple mealybug’ One of the lesser-known mealybugs in most of the United States, the pineapple mealybug is a pink or pinkish-orange color. Live specimens of Pseudococcus dendrobiorum most closely resemble the pineapple mealybug in appearance. Major hosts plants of the long-tailed mealybug are citrus, taro, avocado, guava, eggplant and grapevine. The moulted prepupal and pupal skins are pushed out the end of the cocoon. After mating and when it is fully grown, the female mealybug settles on the plant and produces a white fluffy wax chamber around herself. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: Volume 36 - November 2003 : Hawaiian Entomological Society, A Review of the Association of Ants with Mealybug Wilt Disease of Pineapple. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, and the pesticide's properties and application timing. The mealybugs suck the plantâs sap, which is high in sugars and low in other nutrients. Anagyrus pseudococci is a well known encyrtid parasitoid capable of developing on a variety of mealybug species (Planococcus spp. The adult male emerges from the pupa. At the posterior end of the body are two pairs of much longer white wax filaments. This document is EENY-666, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. She gives live birth to small first instar (stage) nymphs. Two species of mealy- bugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and D. neobrevipes Beardsley, are associated with wilt disease of pineapple under field conditions. Specially shaped rods called stylets are held in the short sheath-like rostrum. References. This characteristic helps distinguish it from other mealybugs that may feed on the same hos… Original publication date October 2016. The Long-tailed mealybug, lives on ferns, herbacious plants, shrubs, trees and climbers. In addition there is the dendrobium mealybug (Pseudococcus dendrobiorum), Jack Beardsley’s mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi), and the grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus). In Japan, Tabata et al. The adult female is oval, about 3 mm long. The prepupa and pupa have wing buds. It is a solitary, internal parasitoid and lays one egg per host, with the larva developing inside the host’s body. Integrated control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hom. Nymphs hatch from the eggs within the femaleâs body and are born live. No pathogens of the Long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus, are known in New Zealand. They may move about the group of leaves where they were born. The second instar male makes a fluffy white cocoon in which develop two pre-adult non-feeding stages, a prepupa and a pupa. 105/32. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 160. http://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/Index.html. The long-tailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) is widespread and common on many crops but it is usually not a serious pest. Pineapple is an important crop in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and there is a need for increased pest management information on the crop in this state. On the underside of the head there is a short rostrum that guides the feeding stylets. They usually do this using the wind. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. ... Coccus viridis, Phenacoccus madeirensis, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi, and Pseudococcus longispinus. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. A third species, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) induces wilt symptoms in laboratory experiments, but not under field conditions. Mealybugs have a short white wax anal tube through which they excrete the excess sugary liquid, which is called honeydew. Other insects with a scale stage also cover themselves with white wax. A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple. This wasp is used for biological control programs and is the most common commercial parasitoid reared for mealybug control (Triapitsyn et al. Interesting Insects and other Invertebrates. Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the dangerous pest of different plants, including economically important tropical. It is likely that some first instar nymphs climb to a prominent place on a leaf or branch and await a gust of wind. Feeding and honeydewMealybug adult females and nymphs have sucking mouthparts. DSIR Information Series No. The red bodied male grows a pair of long white wax tails. This review article is an attempt to bring this information to a broader audience and examine it in the context of related research reported in mainstream publications to create a meaningful synthesis. 2012. Mealybugs are common indoor pests. The pink strain reproduced parthenogenetically, while the gray strain reproduced sexually. • For potted plants, hot water dips or … Why is there so much white wax?Most mealybugs produce much white flocculent wax with which they are covered and which also covers the areas of plants they inhabit. The symptoms of wilt disease and the geographic distribution of the pineapple mealybug complex are described. Common examples include the longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus), which has characteristically long waxy filaments that protrude from the end of the abdomen, and the obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni), which also has waxy filaments, but they are much shorter in comparison to the longtailed mealybug. They may occur singly or in dense colonies. plant-synz.landcareresearch.co.nz/. The presence of a faint dark stripe on the dorsum of the It mainly lives on the underside of leaves, but it can be found on all parts of a plant including under bark. It goes after pineapples, citrus, coffee, cotton, and many Ananas-species trees (including bananas). It lives on a wide variety of cultivated, naturalised and native plants. PredatorsEight species of predator have been observed feeding on Long-tailed mealybugs. J. Like many other mealybugs the long-tailed mealybug is covered by white wax. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 36:9-28. Mealybugs have a short white wax anal tube through which they excrete the excess sugary liquid, which is called honeydew. The pair of antennae and three pairs of legs are not visible from above. 2007, Mahfoudhi and Dhouibi 2009). This mealybug gets its common name from the two long, waxy filaments protruding from the last abdominal segment of adult females (Figure 1). Materials and Methods Scale insects (Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research) for permission to use photographs. A third species, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) induces wilt symptoms in … Hempel, and the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Noyes and Hayat 1994). The mature female has a pair of short antennae and three pairs of legs that are not visible from above. The history of the discovery of the disease, the disease etiology, the association of mealybugs with wilt, and the mutualism between ants and mealybugs on pineapple are discussed in detail. Long-tailed mealybug - Pseudococcus longispinus. Maidenhair fern, Huruhuru tapairu, Makawe tapairu, Hen and chickens fern, Hen and chickens, Mother spleenwort, Manamana, Mauku, Mouki, Maku, Moku, Mouku, Four-leaved water clover, Nardoo, Pepperwort, Cruel plant, Kapok vine, Moth plant, White bladder flower, Chatham Island kakaha, Silver spear, Kakaha, Cabbage tree, Giant dracena, Grass palm, Palm lily, Sago palm, Ti, KÄuka, Kiokio, KÅuka, TÄ«, TÄ« awe, Ti kÅuka, TÄ« para, TÄ« pua, TÄ« rÄkau, Whanake, Hawaiian ti, Happy plant, Pacific Island cabbage tree, TÄ« pore, Alpine violet, Cyclamen, Persian violet, Sowbread, Persimon, Chinese persimmon, Date plum, Japanese persimmon, Kaki, Key fig, Chinese banyan, Glossy-leaf fig, Hill's weeping fig (var. Pineapple mealybug (D.brevipes), long-tailed mealybug (P. longispinus), jack beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi), obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni), and orchid mealybugs (Pseudococcus microcirculus and Pseudococcus dendrobiorum) are the major species due to their occurrence in serious proportions in many parts of the world (Bronson 2009). Mealybug infestations appear on plants as tiny, soft-bodied insects surrounded by a fuzzy, white mess around the stems and leaf nodes. Longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) • Wide host range: air plant, asparagus, avocado, banyan, begonia, betel- ... • Pineapple mealybugs are tended by several species of ants; control ants to help prevent serious mealybug infestations. Some were deliberately released into New Zealand to provide biological control of the Long-tailed mealybug and other pest species. Home gardeners who wish to control the Long-tailed mealybug should ask their local garden centre or horticultural supplier about the available options. Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), Icerya purchasi Maskell, and Icerya genistae Hempel. Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Apparently, the orchid mealybug is the most problematic species in California, particularly in greenhouses. At least 28 different species of ants tend mealybugs on pineapples. Reviewed September 2019. Another less common mealybug species, the long-tailed Pseudococcus longispinus, is occasionally seen in pineapple fields, and has also been found to be associated with mealybug wilt . The body is covered with powdery white wax and is surrounded by long white wax filaments. These predators include five species of ladybird (four adventive), larvae of two kinds of flies, predatory gall flies (Cecidomyiidae) and hoverflies (Syrphidae), and larvae of a lacewing. Pineapple heart rot disease incidence was determined as described by Bua et al. However, it can easily be recognised because it is the only species in New Zealand where the adult female has both four very long posterior tails and long lateral wax filaments. hillii), Laurel fig, Malayan banyan, Pigeonwood, Kaiwhir, Kaiwhiria, KÅporokaiwhiri, PÅporokaiwhiri, PÅporokaiwhiria, Porokaiwhiri, Porokaiwhiria, Poroporokaiwhiria, Australian frangipani, Sweetshade, Wing-seed tree, Red mapou, Red matipo, MÄpau, MÄpou, Mataira, Matipou, Takapou, TÄpau, TÄ«pau, Dwarf bean, French bean, Garden bean, Green bean, Kidney bean, Pole bean, Snap bean, String bean, Flax, Lowland flax, New Zealand flax, Swamp flax, Harakeke, Harareke, KÅrari, Marsh ribbonwood, Salt marsh ribbonwood, Houi, MÄkaka, Runa, Flannel leaf, Kerosene plant, Tobacco weed, Wild tobacco tree, Woolly nightshade, Potato, HÄ«wai, Huiwaiwaka, Kapana, Mahetau, Parareka, Parate, RÄ«wai, Taewa, Taewha, Rabbiteye blueberry, Rabbit-eye blueberry, Hebe, Shrub speedwell, Veronica, Speedwell, Koromiko. Plant-SyNZ: Invertebrate herbivore-host plant association database. It is a pest on outdoor plants and those grown in greenhouses. are working on the identification of the female produced sex pheromone of the pineapple mealybug [ Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Homoptera: Pseudococcidae], which is a pest infesting pineapples in Okinawa.6 Dr. Tabata asked me to synthesize samples with the proposed structure 1 of the pheromone (Tabata, J. personal communication). Breeding is slower at the lower winter temperatures. When it wishes to feed, the mealybug moves the tip of the rostrum onto the surface of the plant leaf, stem or fruit. Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni (long-tailed mealybug) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Fruit Phytosanitory Certificate 14 Panonychus citri McGregor (citrus red mite) Acarina: Tetranychidae Fruit Phytosanitory Certificate 15 Tetranychus urticae Koch (two … In laboratory studies, Anagyrus pseudococci were reared on Pseudococcus longispinus, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus njalensis Laing, Dysmicoccus brevipes, and Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell) Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni (long-tailed mealybug) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Fruit Phytosanitory Certificate 14 Panonychus citri McGregor (citrus red mite) Acarina: Tetranychidae Fruit Phytosanitory Certificate 15 Tetranychus urticae Koch (two … Martin NA. The mealybug is also a pest of pears, and to a lesser extent, apples in South Africa (Swart, 1977). 1979. Date Accessed. In Hawaii the longtailed and pineapple mealybugs are common on orchids. This is ... the scale insect pests of papaya, pineapple and other economically important plants in this state. Finally, management techniques for wilt, including ant and mealybug control, are reviewed. Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the dangerous of pineapple pest in Mediterranean Region. Items in ScholarSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. The stylets are then gradually pushed into the plant and manoeuvred into the phloem (nutrient transport vessels) of the plant. There are three female nymphal instars (stages) and two male nymphal instars. Dysmicoccus (Pseudococcus) brevipes Pineapple mealybug Yes Fruits, leaves, stems, roots 1Not a quarantine pest Williams 2000, ... Pseudococcus longispinus Long-tailed mealybug Yes Leaf, stem, fruit 1Not a quarantine pest 2R&D Database Solenopsis geminata Fab. ParasitoidsTwelve parasitoid and hyperpeparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera) have been reared from Long-tailed mealybugs in New Zealand. A third species, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) induces wilt symptoms in laboratory experiments, but not under field conditions. Hymenptrous parasitoids as a bioagents for controlling maybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt Egypt. A great deal of data on this subject has been published in the relatively obscure technical papers and reports of the defunct Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii. Two species of mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and D. neobrevipes Beardsley, are associated with wilt disease of pineapple under field conditions. The mealybugs tend to live where they can find âshelterâ such as pushing up against the veins of plants, moulted skins of other insects, or against scale insects such as the Flocculent flax scale. Fire ant Aust. Cox JM. 11: 1-230. However, does it make it easier for predators and parasitoids to find them, or is the white wax some kind of deterrent and warning colouration? Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Long-tailed mealybug). Commercial growers who need to control the Long-tailed mealybug should consult their professional organisation for up-to-date advice. It is found on crops, naturalised plants and native plants. The ants and natural enemies associated with mealybugs on pineapple are reviewed as part of a discussion of the role of ants in promoting mealybug infestations. The symptoms of wilt disease and the geographic distribution of the pineapple mealybug complex are described. Adult females and nymphs also have legs and can walk. Longtailed Mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)1 Morgan A. Byron and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman2 1. In South Africa, P. longispinus occurs on pineapple sufficiently frequently for there to be concern over disinfesting planting material (Petty, 1987); the species is also listed as a pest of guava (Villiers, 1978). and Pseudococcus spp., Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae). The young mealybugs often settle by against something prominent on the plant. The closterovirus PMWaV is transmitted by the pink pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus bre-vipes and the grey pineapple mealybug D. neobrevipes, the second and third instars being more effective at acquiring the virus than first instars and gravid females (Sether et al., 1998). To the human eye this makes it much easier to find the colonies of mealybugs. There is no distinct division between the head or thorax (middle section of the body) and abdomen. The symptoms of wilt disease and the geographic distribution of the pineapple mealybug complex are described. Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Sugarcane mealybug). Results obtained showed that PMWaV-2 is transmitted by the grey pineapple mealybug in a semi-persistent manner. A third species, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) induces wilt symptoms in laboratory experiments, but not under field conditions. These feeding stages grow by moulting (changing skin). The longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcuslongispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), is a widely-distributed pest that feeds on many economically important hosts, particularly tropical fruits and ornamentals. Fauna of New Zealand. They are pale brown or purple under the wax. The dispersal, age-structure and natural enemies of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), in relation to sampling and control. When it is ready to emerge from the cocoon, the back end of the cocoon is pushed open and the male backs out. Entomophaga, 25(4):415-426. In Hawaii the longtailed and pineapple mealybugs are common on orchids. Early detection of mealybug infestations allows implementation of appropriately timed control measures as soon as possible, and pheromone-baited traps are now used for monitoring Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hinkens et al. The honeydew moth (Cryptoblabes gnidiella) and the long-tailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) in avocado plantations. The body is yellowish-grey and may have a slightly darker stripe on its midline. Insufﬁcient mealybug control can lead to whole pineapple plant-ings being lost due to mealybug wilt, result-ing in lost fruit production (Carter, 1933). 1987. Dactylopius longispinus Targioni Tozzetti, 1867 Dactylopius longifilis Comstock, 1881 Boisduvalia lauri Signoret 1875 Oudablis lauri (Signoret 1875) Coccus laurinus Boisduval, 1867 Pseudococcus laurinus (Boisduval, 1867) Dactylopius hoyae Signoret, 1875 Dactylopius pteridis Signoret, 1875 Dactylopius adonidum (Linnaeus), (Maskell (1890), misidentification) This suggests to me that it may be some kind of deterrent and warning. The most common species found in Hawaii’s pineapple plantings are D. brevipesand D. Pheidole and Solenopsis are the ant genera most commonly associated with pineapple mealybugs throughout the world. In early literature (sourced from the 1930s), it was thought that there were two strains of the pineapple mealybug and one species, named Pseudococcus brevipes. : Pseudococcidae), in avocado plantations in Israel. Attia, A.R. It can walk around the leaves where its cocoon was and it can fly to other leaves or to different plants. 23), and long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus adonidum (L.) (= Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti)). ... Long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus. There are three to four generations depending upon locality and seasonal factors. 2019. Swirski E, Wysoki M, Yizhar J, Gurevitz E, Greenberg S, 1979. When it wishes to feed, the mealybug moves the tip of the rostrum onto the surface of the plant leaf or stem. Other species may have two to four long posterior wax filaments and obvious lateral wax filaments. The stylets are then gradually pushed into the plant and manoeuvred into the phloem (nutrient transport vessels) of the plant. Presumably, the virus is carried on or near the stylets of the mealybug. The pink and gray strains were found primarily on different structures of the pineapple plant, and reproduced using different methods. Conservation status: This adventive mealybug is a pest of crops and plants in gardens and native reserves. After it has opened the back of the cocoon, its transparent wings (1 pair) expand and harden. During the summer all life stages are found on leaves and fruit, but when the weather becomes colder, the mealybugs move to more sheltered places such as under bark where they continue to reproduce. The adult male does not have a rostrum or stylets and does not feed. Pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. Feeding and honeydewMealybug adult females and nymphs have sucking mouthparts. Longtailed mealy bug, Preudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), life cycle. The nymphs are like small orange-brown adult females. Dactylopius longispinus Targioni Tozzetti, 1867Dactylopius longifilis Comstock, 1881Boisduvalia lauri Signoret 1875Oudablis lauri (Signoret 1875)Coccus laurinus Boisduval, 1867Pseudococcus laurinus (Boisduval, 1867)Dactylopius hoyae Signoret, 1875Dactylopius pteridis Signoret, 1875Dactylopius adonidum (Linnaeus), (Maskell (1890), misidentification). It is presumed that the wax tails help balance the insect in flight. Specially shaped rods called stylets are held in the short sheath-like rostrum. The literature concerning the association between ants and the mealybugs causing pineapple wilt disease is surveyed. (Pseudococcus longispinus), Jack Beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi), orchid mealybug (Pseudococcus microcirculus) and the obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni). Transmission experiments for the longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus), showed that this mealybug is also a vector of PMWaV-2. Jahn GC, Beardsley JW, Gonzalez-Hernandez H. 2003. By this time the genus had b… The mealybugs suck the plantâs sap, which is high in sugars and low in other nutrients. Two species of mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and D. neobrevipes Beardsley, are associated with wilt disease of pineapple under field conditions. The Long-tailed mealybug breeds all year. (Pseudococcus importatus), obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus obscurus), pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes), and the solanum mealybug (Phenacoccus solani). Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Citriculus mealybug). Walking, flying and dispersalThe adult male has legs and wings. 2001), longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Millar et al. The male may mate with females of the same colony or fly to another colony to mate. The time for a generation varies from 1 month in the heat of summer to 4 months during the cold of winter. Cox JM.